In the quest for renewable fuels for the maritime industry C-Job Naval Architects joined forces with Proton Ventures and Enviu in a consortium to further research ammonia as a fuel ….
This research project will focus on the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of an ammonia tanker fuelled by its own cargo. Multiple configurations with either a combustion engine or fuel cells will be investigated. The expected project duration is 2 years and will consist of theoretical research, lab testing, a pilot and evaluation.
The results should spur a wider application of ammonia as a fuel on other ship types as well.
Click to enlarge. Source: C-Job Naval Architects. Additional partners will be announced as the project develops but, to start with, the team includes ship designer C-Job Naval Architects, ammonia engineering firm Proton Ventures, and non-profit Enviu. The parties met at the first NH3 Event, last year, so it is only appropriate that they intend to present the initial results of their collaboration at the upcoming NH3 Event in Rotterdam.
The collaboration recently received subsidy funding from the province of Zuid-Holland, through Topsector Water. While many projects are investigating battery technology for short-haul vessels, the only other viable carbon-neutral fuels for long-haul shipping are biofuels and hydrogen.
According to the same report, hydrogen is a less profitable fuel for the maritime sector, because its energy density is so low that carrying a sufficient quantity of fuel would displace too much cargo. Quoting Niels De Vries, the article explains:. The heating value, the so-called LHV, low heating value, of ammonia amounts to 12, megajoules per cubic meter, where liquid hydrogen does not exceed 8, megajoules per cubic meter.
Ammonia can also be stored at a much more acceptable temperature and pressure. At With pure hydrogen these figures are at degrees Celsius at 1 bar and at 20 degrees at bar. For decades, the combustible but also toxic substance [ammonia] has been safely transported by sea in ships up to 60, tons. A distribution network is already available.
This can be used for the new demand for ammonia as fuel. For the ammonia tankers there are already loading and unloading points at this moment. These can be converted into approved bunker stations in the vision of C-Job with a number of modifications.
Huib van de Grijspaarde. We aim to contribute to a future proof shipping world by validating pioneering renewable energy technologies that have the potential to make the industry fossil-fuel and emissions free. By enabling selected shipping companies to gain a relatively low-risk first mover advantage via the implementation of these sustainable technologies, followed by their wider dissemination, we will spur systemic change, resulting in large-scale positive economic, ecological and societal impact.
Sign In. In the quest for renewable fuels for the maritime industry C-Job Naval Architects joined forces with Proton Ventures and Enviu in a consortium to further research ammonia as a fuel … This research project will focus on the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of an ammonia tanker fuelled by its own cargo.
Source: Future Proof Shipping. Geographic Regions: Europe Netherlands. This comment form is under antispam protection. Ammonia Energy Association. Quick Links.In terms of fuel, the shipping industry is becoming more and more aware of its impact on the environment. Considering the long-term, what sustainable fuels present viable and realistic possibilities for the maritime sector?
Pilot project: an ammonia tanker fueled by its own cargo
Furthermore, thanks to the long-standing fertilizer industry, safe working practices are well established. The main inspiration to use ammonia as a fuel came from Professor Dr. Mulder while Niels was following a course at Delft University of Technology. Professor Mulder put forward the idea that this energy surplus can be utilized to produce — and therefore be stored in — a renewable fuel. Niels took this initial concept and developed it into a more tangible strategy.
The hydrogen is produced through the electrolysis of water. This requires a catalyst to crack a small portion of ammonia into nitrogen and hydrogen. Other alternatives involve using fuel cells. Here, the ammonia is fully separated, and the hydrogen is then used to generate electric power.
On the crucial subject of safety, Niels goes on to say that the fertilizer industry has more than years of experience working with ammonia. Using the knowledge and experience of the people working in this sector one could develop maritime safety standards using ammonia as a fuel. In the terms of storage, this industry already uses large tanks capable of holding 60, tonnes of ammonia.
Furthermore, large tankers have been used for decades to transport up to 80, tonnes of ammonia across the oceans. Such issues will have to be taken into account for ammonia-powered ships.
Furthermore, ammonia is known to be a toxic substance; a fact that will need to be addressed when developing a safe and class-compliant ship design. At the moment, the maritime industry relies on HFO and MDO, which are the cheapest, but also the most polluting options.
And how does C-Job see itself in this long-term picture of ammonia as a fuel? Designing sustainable and future-proof vessels — an ammonia-powered ammonia carrier, for example. C-Job Naval Architects.
Netherlands Maritime Technology maakt gebruik van cookies op haar website. Klik op 'OK' om akkoord te gaan. Lees hier ons privacybeleid voor meer informatie.By The Maritime Executive. By The Maritime Executive Ammonia can be safely and effectively applied as a marine fuel to reduce harmful emissions in the maritime industry, according to new research by C-Job Naval Architects in the Netherlands.
The research uses a new concept design, an ammonia carrier fueled by its own cargo, to study the concept of using ammonia as a marine fuel and achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in shipping. However, it does have practical challenges as the power density and load response capability are not on an acceptable level yet. Therefore, in the short term applying the internal combustion engine is the way to go.
However, the SOFC does have practical challenges as the power density and load response capability are not at an acceptable level yet. Furthermore, despite the higher efficiency of the SOFC the total cost of ownership is still higher than the ICE based on these guidelines and estimations.
The two-stroke, low speed internal combustion engine is second in efficiency with a system efficiency of Furthermore, the ICE is less expensive, more robust and has acceptable power density and load response capability. In the future further development of fuel cell technology might change the outcome of this evaluation.
Based on the comparison the ICE is currently selected as best option for this project. However, the conventional option has significantly more harmful emissions with NOx assumed to be similar. Studying the cost based on equal range the ammonia powered option is clearly more expensive, about 3. This follows from a basic cost scenario of euro per ton ammonia and euro per ton low sulfur 0.
Looking into future scenarios the ammonia powered option can be in similar cost range as the conventional option. This is the case when using euro per ton ammonia, based on low electricity cost, combined with either a euro per ton HFO with euro per ton CO2 taxation or euro per ton HFO without CO2 taxation.
Furthermore, in case of leakages remote operated shut-off valves should be installed to isolate the leakage and limit its impact. In line with this mitigation, redundancy in the fuel supply line should be arranged to ensure sufficient fuel supply for continuous operation in case part of the fuel supply is shut-off. In addition, in case of a blackout the main remote operated isolation valves should be installed with a fail close so when there is a loss of power the valves close automatically. Where possible, fuel lines should be located in separate unmanned spaces.
Where impossible, for example in the engine room, double-walled piping with pressure transmitters should be applied. Furthermore, to monitor the conditions of the fuel, pressure transmitters, temperature transmitters and flow detectors should be added.
In addition, to cope with overpressure a pressure relieve system should be installed. Furthermore, the ventilation of the spaces containing fuel supply lines also require space for the intake and exhaust of air. The requirement of routing with sufficient distance from the side also impacts the effective use of available space of the vessel.During these challenging times, we guarantee we will work tirelessly to support you. We will continue to give you accurate and timely information throughout the crisis, and we will deliver on our mission — to help everyone in the world learn how to do anything — no matter what.
China ammonia tankers
Thank you to our community and to all of our readers who are working to aid others in this time of crisis, and to all of those who are making personal sacrifices for the good of their communities. We will get through this together. Updated: March 29, References. Anhydrous ammonia, as its name suggests, is ammonia kept separate from water. With molecules consisting of 1 atom of nitrogen to 3 atoms of hydrogen, anhydrous ammonia is used as an agricultural fertilizer to recharge the soil with nitrogen depleted by crops, as well as a desiccant to slow mold growth in high-moisture grains and a protein enriched of corn silage.
However, its chemical properties make it a dangerous chemical to work with, requiring proper safeguards for storage, use and transport. Log in Facebook Loading Google Loading Civic Loading No account yet?
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Article Edit. Learn why people trust wikiHow. To create this article, 16 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. This article has also been viewed 42, times. Learn more Explore this Article Storing Anhydrous Ammonia.
Handling Anhydrous Ammonia. Transporting Anhydrous Ammonia. Tips and Warnings. Related Articles. Method 1 of Store anhydrous ammonia under pressure. To keep it liquid at temperatures above this, it must be stored and injected into the soil under pressure.
Once in the soil, the liquid ammonia turns to gas, releasing its nitrogen into the soil as it absorbs the soil's moisture. Containers used to store anhydrous ammonia should conform to the guidelines of the American National Standards Unit, with all parts and surfaces able to withstand a pressure of at least pounds per square inch kilo-pascals. One cubic foot Nurse tanks on-farm storage tanks and applicator tanks should be filled no more than 85 percent full, to allow for some of the ammonia to vaporize without rupturing the tank.
Use only non-corrosive storage containers. Anhydrous ammonia will corrode metals such as copper and zinc and any alloys that include those metals. Because zinc is used to galvanize steel, galvanized steel containers and pipe cannot be used with anhydrous ammonia. Paint tanks in light, reflective colors such as white or silver. This will reflect heat, helping to keep the tanks cooler and the pressure inside them lower. Inspect all storage tanks and hoses on a regular basis and service them as needed.By The Maritime Executive.
By The Maritime Executive The new energy-efficient 5, TEU Panamax container ship is designed for the fast-growing intra-Asia trades. The vessel will have an hydrodynamically optimized low resistance ship line, a more effective structural design and enhanced ergonomic design features for greater crew comfort.
Ammonia, when generated by renewable energy sources, has no carbon footprint and emits almost no CO2, SOx or particulate matter when burned in engines. The name Quadelprop reflects features in the design and propulsion arrangements to enable high maneuverability and station keeping: four azimuth thrusters fitted at each corner of the hull and four dual fuel generator sets installed in the engine room compartment and complemented by an energy storage system provide power to the ship and in particular to the electric thruster motors.
The azimuth capability is enhanced and controlled by a redundant dynamic positioning DP system. Ship-to-ship LNG bunkering operations can also be envisaged safely at anchorage and in waiting areas. The absence of mooring requirements is expected to simply and shorten the duration of the bunkering operation and also allow the bunker ship to immediately move away from the client ship in case of an emergency shut down and disconnection of transfer hoses.
The starboard side amidships manifold is dedicated to LNG loading at terminal and is designed for high loading flow rate. Bespoke technical consultancy Marinnov developed the design with engineering support from ship designer Marine Assistance. The ship is designed to carry LNG, under a maximum pressure of 0. The International Seabed Authority ISA has issued 30 contracts for exploration of the international deep seabed area involving 22 different countries, including 12 developing states.
The aim is to find deposits of polymetallic nodules suitable for the extraction of minerals such as copper, nickel, manganese and cobalt. These minerals are important for a range of industries including battery manufacturing and solar panel and wind turbine construction.
Michael W. The IMO and port state control inspection authorities say they have set a pragmatic approach to inspections to support the continued operation of the global supply chain during the COVID pandemic. The port State control PSC regimes, which carry out inspections onboard ships to monitor and enforce compliance with international regulations, have highlighted their commitment to ensuring shipping continues to trade safely.
Representatives of the 10 Port State Control regimes, which cover the world's oceans, met on April 8 in However, it is under severe threat from illegal targeting by industrial trawlers in a trade known as saiko.
The report indicates samples of saiko sardinella that the Environmental Justice Foundation EJF obtained were 99 percent juveniles. This is extremely worrying since these young fish are crucial to population recovery, saysAs part of the tests, ammonia was injected into a combustion research unit to better understand its properties.
Based on initial results, the tests will be continued on both dual-fuel and spark-ignited gas engines. These will be followed by field tests in collaboration with ship owners fromand potentially also with energy customers in the future. The company is working with ship owners, shipbuilders, classification societies and fuel suppliers to learn more about system and safety requirements, as well as fuel composition, emissions and efficiency.
The company has also gained significant experience with ammonia from designing cargo handling systems for liquid petroleum gas carriers, many of which are used to transport ammonia. Ammonia has a number of properties that require further investigation. It ignites and burns poorly compared to other fuels and is toxic and corrosive, making safe handling and storage important.
Burning ammonia could also lead to higher NOx emissions unless controlled either by aftertreatment or by optimising the combustion process. A regulatory framework and class rules will need to be developed for its use as a marine fuel. Internal combustion engines can be adapted to burn any fuel. Dual-fuel or spark-ignited engines are already capable of burning liquified natural gas - from fossil, biomass or synthetic sources — while diesel engines can run on liquid biofuels, biodiesel or e-diesel.
The company has extensive experience in converting engines to other fuels, including diesel to dual-fuel, as well as engines capable of burning methanol and volatile organic compounds from crude oil cargoes. The modularity of modern engines means that conversions can be made with a very limited exchange of components. Published every February the journal is now recognised as the highest quality publication that covers all aspects of maritime technology and regulation and a must read for the industry.
The Journal Published every February the journal is now recognised as the highest quality publication that covers all aspects of maritime technology and regulation and a must read for the industry. More Details.The ships, basically oil tankers, had been converted by fitting small, riveted, pressure vessels for the carriage of LPG into cargo tank spaces.
This enabled transport over long distances of substantial volumes of an oil refinery by-product that had distinct advantages as a domestic and commercial fuel. LPG is not only odourless and non-toxic, it also has a high calorific value and a low sulphur content, making it very clean and efficient when being burnt. Today, most fully pressurised oceangoing LPG carriers are fitted with two or three horizontal, cylindrical or spherical cargo tanks and have typical capacities between 20, to 1, Tonnes and Length overall ranging from m to m.
Fully pressurised ships are still being built in numbers and represent a cost-effective, simple way of moving LPG to and from smaller gas terminals. These carriers, incorporating tanks either cylindrical, spherical or bi-lobe in shape, are able to load or discharge gas cargoes at both refrigerated and pressurised storage facilities. These ships feature cylindrical, insulated, stainless steel cargo tanks able to accommodate cargoes up to a maximum specific gravity of 1.
They are built to carry liquefied gases at low temperature and atmospheric pressure between terminals equipped with fully refrigerated storage tanks.
However, discharge through a booster pump and cargo heater makes it possible to discharge to pressurized tanks too. Prismatic tanks enabled the ship's cargo carrying capacity to be maximised, thus making fully refrigerated ships highly suitable for carrying large volumes of cargo such as LPG, ammonia and vinyl chloride over long distances.
Although LNG carriers are often larger in terms of cubic capacity, this term is normally only applied to fully refrigerated LPG carriers. The main type of cargo containment system utilised on board modern fully refrigerated ships are independent tanks with rigid foam insulation.
The insulation used is quite commonly polyurethane foam. Older ships can have independent tanks with loosely filled perlite insulation. In the past, there have been a few fully refrigerated ships built with semi-membrane or integral tanks and internal insulation tanks, but these systems have only maintained minimal interest.
The large majority of such ships currently in service have been constructed by shipbuilders in Japan and Korea. In the modern fleet of LNG carriers, there is an interesting exception concerning ship size. Compressed Natural Gas carrier ships CNG carrier are designed for transportation of natural gas under high pressure. CNG carriers are economical for medium distance marine transport  and rely on the adoption of suitable pressure vessels to store CNG during transport and on the use of suitable loading and unloading compressors to receive the CNG at the loading terminal and to deliver the CNG at the unloading terminal.
The Gas Codes, developed by International Maritime Organization apply to all gas carriers regardless of size. There are three Gas Codes and these are described below.
Ships on which construction started on or after 1 October should apply the amended version of the Code but ships built earlier may comply with previous editions of the IGC Code. The latest was adopted in June All amendments are not necessarily agreed by every government. Although this Code is not mandatory, many countries have implemented it into national law. Accordingly, most charterers will expect such ships to meet with Code standards and, as proof of this, to have on board a Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk.
Its content is similar to the GC Code, though less extensive. It therefore summarises current shipbuilding practice at that time. It remains as an IMO recommendation for all gas carriers in this older fleet of ships. The Code is not mandatory but is applied by some countries for ship registration and in other countries as a necessary fulfilment prior to port entry.
Accordingly, many ships of this age are required by charterers to meet with Code standards and to have on board a Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk. A cargo containment system is the total arrangement for containing cargo including, where fitted:. The basic cargo tank types utilised on board gas carriers are in accordance with the list below:—.
Independent Type . Type A Independent Tanks are prismatic and supported on insulation-bearing blocks typically consisting of wooden chocks and located by anti-roll chocks located at the top of the tank inside the void space and anti-flotation chocks located inside the void space usually just above the double bottom tanks.