A complete tutorial on Lego gears, their advantages and disadvantages as well as the basic laws of mechanics that apply to them. Updated on February 19th When I describe my constructions or ideas, and when I explain their functionality, I usually assume that readers have the basic understanding of mechanics and of the rules that apply to gears.
This assumption, it seems, is sometimes wrong. Even though it may appear frustrating at times, I see no real reason to ignore the people who have not yet learnt how the gears work, nor to deny them the pleasure of building with Lego Technic.
For better clarity it was divided into sections. What do we need gears for? A very usual answer is: to transfer the drive from a motor to the final mechanism. It is true, but not entirely correct. The essential purpose of gears is to transform the properties of a motor to suit our purposes in the best way possible. Transferring the drive is in fact a side-effect of this process.
Gears can be obviously used with all kinds of drive, be it an electric motor, a manual crank, a wind turbine, a mill wheel, whatever. Every motor has its mechanical power, specific for a given type of motor. A number of types of Lego motor exists, some types offering greater power than the others. The important thing is that mechanical power of a motor consists of two factors: speed and torque. These are the two properties we can transform using gears.
Speed is simply the number of rotations of a driveshaft that the given motor produces within a given time interval. The higher the speed, the more rotations we get. Most of the Lego motors offers more than RPM. Torque is the strength with which the driveshaft is rotated. The higher the torque, the more difficult it is to stop the driveshaft. Therefore motors which offer high torque are usually preferred to the other, because they can drive heavier vehicles or more complex mechanisms than the motors with low torque.
The torque is measured in N. The mechanical power is, in a certain simplification, the quotient of torque and speed. The speed, on the other hand, depends on the voltage at which the motor is powered. The official standard for Lego motors is 9V voltage, which is equal to the voltage of six AA batteries.
The recently released Lego rechargeable battery provides 7. It means that the motors powered from the battery have lower mechanical power than the ones powered from the AA batteries, but this is just a theory, because the voltage provided by the AA batteries decreases over time, and the voltage provided by the Lego battery remains more or less constant. Some experiments are done with motors powered at 12V, and though the motors produce higher mechanical power under these conditions, it should be noted that they were designed for 9V, not 12V, and it may result in a fatal damage to the motors.
You can find an exhaustive description of the performance of specific Lego motors here. What do we need the speed and torque for? That is actually different for each mechanism. Consider a model of a sport car — we want it to be light and fast. It means that we certainly need large speed, but not the torque, because a light vehicle requires little torque to move.
Using gears, we can transform torque into speed, or speed into torque. There are two very important, but very simple rules for that:. In the case of our sport car it means that we can pick a drive motor, and use the second of the aforementioned rules to gain extra speed at the cost of some needless torque. The basic rule is: speed and torque are inversely proportional. It means that if we decrease the speed twice, the torque is increased twice. A different example would be a rail crossing barrier.The programs should be read from left to right.
I recommend you take the time to try to comprehend the meaning of every setting within every block. In the images that illustrate each program, blue circles show which settings have been changed, relative to the default settings. Click any image for an expanded view. We will make much use of two blocks that can be used to propel the robot: ' move steering ' and ' move tank '.
Anything you can do with one block you can also do with the other, so which you use is a matter of personal preference. I usually prefer to use the move steering block. Overall then, this program makes the robot do a hard turn right, then a medium turn right, then a gentle turn right. It is exactly equivalent to the previous program, except that it uses 'move tank' blocks instead of 'move steering' blocks.
Overall then, this program makes the robot lower the gripper bar, trapping an object, then it does a medium left turn backwards, pulling the object with it, then it raises the gripper bar.
This exercise assumes that a colour sensor is attached to port 3 and is suspended just above the ground, pointing at the ground, as in the photos at the top of this page. Overall then, this program turns on the right motor making the robot turn leftthen waits until the brightness falls below a certain value because the sensor has passed over a black line, for example then turns off the motor.
This exercise uses the gyro sensor, which is assumed to be connected to port 2. The gyro sensor measures the angle in which it is pointing, relative to the angle that is was at when the program was launched. It's very important to keep the Gyro Sensor and EV3 steady when connecting the cable and during start-up of the EV3, otherwise the gyro reading will continually wander away from the correct value.
If you are not sure that this condition was met then simply unplug the sensor from port 2 and then reconnect it before running the program, while ensuring that the EV3 and the gyro sensor are very still.
To summarize, the robot will move forward in a straight line until it has moved 11cm closer to the reflecting object in front of it, then it will stop and pause for one second, then it will back up continuously until it detects that it has moved 6cm away from the object, then it will stop.
You have now finished the 'Basics' exercises and are ready to start the ' Beyond Basics' exercises Search this site.
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A special note about the 'move' blocks We will make much use of two blocks that can be used to propel the robot: ' move steering ' and ' move tank '. In the move steering block you set a ' steering ' value and a single 'power' value which I think Lego should have called the 'speed' value. With the steering value set at zero the robot will move in a straight line without turning. Set at negative values the robot will turn left, and set at positive values the robot will turn right.
The power value can also be thought of as a percentage of full power or speed. Power can be set positive go forwards or negative go backwards. In the move tank block you set a power value for each motor, or wheel. Set the powers to be equal and the robot will move in a straight line. If power left is set larger more positive than power right, then the robot will turn right clockwiseand vice versa. Setting one wheel to zero power means it will not turn, giving 'medium' turning.
Setting the powers at equal and opposite values will make one wheel turn forwards while the other turn backwards, so the robot will turn around the midpoint of the wheel axis. The first block is a 'start' block. The second block is a 'move steering' block with mode set to ' rotations '. Thus this block will make the robot move two wheel rotations forwards in a straight line. Note that the blue ovals in the images highlight values that have been changed from their default values.
The third block is a 'wait' block. Its mode is set to 'time' and the time is set to one second, so the robot will pause for one second.
The fourth block is a 'move steering' block with mode set to ' degrees '. Thus this block will make the robot move two rotations of the wheels backwards in a straight line, bringing the robot back to its starting position.A steering system that ensures realistic steering geometry for any type of Lego wheels. Instructions available.
A common problem with the Lego wheels is steering pivot: because of how rims connected to the suspension elements, the pivot is usually located at the edge of the wheel or even beyond it in particular when using portal axles, like in the set. Such steering geometry is not used in real-world vehicles, and it has several undesired consequences: increased tire scrub, increased torque required to steer, and perhaps most importantly huge amount of space that must be left empty around the wheel.
There are very few Lego rims that allow near-perfect pivot location — most notably, the unique rims from the set which are extremely rare and not exactly pretty to look at. Each wheel is mounted on a Lego wheel hub and a near-perfect pivot is achieved regardless of the wheel used, except for extremely narrow or wide wheels.
It is also sturdy, reasonably fast and easy to motorize. Still, being relatively simple it makes a good starting point for experimenting with some complex suspension designs.
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Hi My name is Jessie Robinson and I doing a project for my gateway class where we need to make a suspension and steering system for a car. My group was inspired by your simple design. Do you happen to have the instructions we can elaborate on.
I was inspired by this thing about one month, and i found simplier solution of this multi-link thing. And ackerman geometry, wrong sided in my case.
Your email:. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Categories: Ideas Tags: steering. Comments 3 Trackbacks 0 Leave a comment Trackback.How To Use LEGO Power Functions! Power Functions Motor Set 8293 Tutorial #Lego #LegoTechnic
February 2nd, at 1. Reply Quote. Jessie Robinson. February 2nd, at 2. May 16th, at 3. Name required. E-Mail will not be published required. Subscribe to comments feed. Follow Us. See more at YouTube.
I chose to bid on the almost complete vehicle, or those without the construction manual, to get them cheaper than the complete kit. If you want to do this project you could use the differenct color for the car.
I have no choice, because the red brick were available when I got started. Later I got some other color from the bid on ebay. This motor is driving the car forward and backward. In this Step, I'm going to show you how to construct the car frame or body. I also added the description text on each image. Following is the list of parts used in each step. Photo 1.
Connector Pegs with Friction2 no. We are done with left car frame. Repeat the procedure from photo 1 to make the right side car frame. Turn both frames upside down. Photo 7. Photo 8. Photo 9.See also this comparison page. Thomas Avery has also performed measures on motors, see Lugnet thread. The roster Electric Technic Motor 9V. Lugnet Partsref c01Peeron c01Lego The older 9V Technic motor Ungeared, it has a high rotation speed and low torque, so for most applications it requires an external gear reduction.
Electric Technic Micromotor. Lugnet PartsrefPeeronLego Appeared inthis small, light weight motor turns slowly and offer low torque - but respectable torque for its size. Sincethis motor replaces Geared down and quite efficient, this is the motor of choice for most applications. Electric Technic Mini-Motor 9v.
InLego replaced motor with a new type, Externally almost identical, its internal structure is very different. Performances are almost as good, and its weight is much lower. Peeron Very powerful, it also consumes a lot of energy. Not recommended for use with a RCX which can't deliver the current needed by this beast.
Only the outermost output is tested below. Electric Technic Motor 9V Geared. This motor was first included in Motor Movers set Provides an axle hole with friction, allowing to choose axle length without the need of an extender. Flat bottom allowing easy mounting.
NXT motor. This motor is specific to the NXT set Because of the special connector of this motor non-standard phone plug typea cable adapter is required to drive this motor with regular 9V sources. Not recommended for use with a RCX which can't deliver the high current that this motor can consume.Putting our community first. Important update on Covid Learn more. Available now. Power through the turns like never before with ultra-realistic steering.
Steer your Technic vehicle left, right or straight ahead with any one of 15 steering axle positions. Rotates 90 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous Putting our community first. Previous Slide Next Slide. Scroll thumbnails left Slide 1 Current slide. Average rating4. Choking Hazard. Small parts. Price Decrease Quantity. Add to Bag. Add to Wishlist. Deliveries and Returns. Express shipping available at checkout.
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March 18th, Average rating5out of 5 stars. CheifRagnarok Purchased for: Self. I ordered this motor two days before arrival.However you will also find them here occasionally As many other topics, this one has been in my to-post list, just for too long Today I decided it must go because I'm also preparing a post for the next weekend, where something very similar was used. So it wouldn't make any sense to post it afterwards It is a simple and clever idea, although not an obvious usage for its core part xcx1hockey slap shot springson how to implement a compact automatic return-to-center steering mechanism.
Where else it could be? As it seems, the idea was attempted more than once before, but only the new PF M-motors offer low enough resistance when getting no power applied, to let axle rotate back to the center position. Return-to-center steering function is here achieved with a rubber band layout, added over a Sariel's mini pendular steered suspension.
This requires however some tunning of rubber band strength and steering motor gear ratio, to the vehicles weight, used tires type and floor friction. Edit 1: In the sequence of Jetro's comment, I've decided to add here Sheppo's return-to-center solution as well, which I hadn't seen before. Not so compact as Ian's solution, bas working as good as it seems. More photos from Sheppo's BS folder.
Still wonder how these elastics have the strength, to force the axle rotating back to the central position. Must give it a try. Edit 2: Suddenly it looks like everybody has also his own solution for this problem Below a new one that Jacob's left to us, on this post's comments. Would anyone like to come with a smaller and fewer parts version of it?
You may also find the mechanism proofing to work, on this video. Edit 3: A late finding originated by a comment from Peer Kreuger Mahjqashown us the "hockey spring" part being used for return-to-center steering purposes already back in [ 1 ]. In the image above we can clearly see the mentioned return-to-center mechanism, underneath this Vayamenda Industries F1 Racer, by Peer.
Last Update: I check this blog every day for cool ideas, and today was shocked and amazed to find my own idea posted! Thanks for the cred : And keep up with the blog - I love it!! Cheers, Chase aka Ian Power.
Hi, Chase I saw your idea on BrickShelf in March this year, and applied the mechanism on a couple of my cars. Thank you for excellent idea. Recently, I am trying to implement clutch gear together with return-to-center mechanism. I'd like to see how quickly the wheels turn, as I want to know how much this spring mechanism slows down the motorrrr. Something to show, the next weekend. Meanwhile have some other very interesting posts to prepare